---
title: "SDM4 in R: Linear Regression (Chapter 7)"
author: "Nicholas Horton (nhorton@amherst.edu) and Sarah McDonald"
date: "June 13, 2018"
output:
pdf_document:
fig_height: 3
fig_width: 6
html_document:
fig_height: 3
fig_width: 5
word_document:
fig_height: 4
fig_width: 6
---
```{r, include = FALSE}
# Don't delete this chunk if you are using the mosaic package
# This loads the mosaic and dplyr packages
require(mosaic)
```
```{r, include = FALSE}
# knitr settings to control how R chunks work.
require(knitr)
opts_chunk$set(
tidy = FALSE, # display code as typed
size = "small" # slightly smaller font for code
)
```
## Introduction and background
This document is intended to help describe how to undertake analyses introduced
as examples in the Fourth Edition of *Stats: Data and Models* (2014) by De Veaux, Velleman, and Bock.
More information about the book can be found at http://wps.aw.com/aw_deveaux_stats_series. This
file as well as the associated R Markdown reproducible analysis source file used to create it can be found at http://nhorton.people.amherst.edu/sdm4.
This work leverages initiatives undertaken by Project MOSAIC (http://www.mosaic-web.org), an NSF-funded effort to improve the teaching of statistics, calculus, science and computing in the undergraduate curriculum. In particular, we utilize the `mosaic` package, which was written to simplify the use of R for introductory statistics courses. A short summary of the R needed to teach introductory statistics can be found in the mosaic package vignettes (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/mosaic).
A paper describing the mosaic approach was published in the *R Journal*: https://journal.r-project.org/archive/2017/RJ-2017-024.
## Chapter 7: Linear Regression
### Section 7.1: Least squares: the line of best fit
Figure 7.2 (page 183) displays a scatterplot of the Burger King data with a superimposed regression line.
```{r message=FALSE}
library(mosaic)
library(readr)
options(digits = 3)
BK <- read_csv("http://nhorton.people.amherst.edu/sdm4/data/Burger_King_Items.csv")
names(BK)
gf_point(Fat ~ Protein, ylab = "Fat (gm)", xlab = "Protein (gm)", data = BK) %>%
gf_lm()
```
We can calculate the residual for a particular value with 31 grams of protein.
```{r}
BKmod <- lm(Fat ~ Protein, data = BK)
BKfun <- makeFun(BKmod)
BKfun(31) # predicted value for a item with 31 grams of protein
```
### Section 7.2 The linear model
```{r}
coef(BKmod)
BKfun(0)
BKfun(32) - BKfun(31)
```
### Section 7.3 Finding the least squares line
```{r}
sx <- sd(~ Protein, data = BK)
sx
sy <- sd(~ Fat, data = BK)
sy
r <- cor(Protein ~ Fat, data = BK)
r # same as cor(Fat ~ Protein)!
r*sy/sx
coef(BKmod)[2]
```
### Section 7.4 Regression to the mean
### Section 7.5 Examining the residuals
Figure 7.5 (page 193) displays the scatterplot of residuals as a function of the amount of protein.
The `msummary()` function generates a lot of output (much of which won't be familiar).
```{r}
gf_point(resid(BKmod) ~ Protein, type = c("p", "r"), data = BK) %>%
gf_lm()
msummary(BKmod)
```
The residual standard error of 10.6 grams matches the value reported on page 194.
### Section 7.6 R-squared: variation accounted for by the model
```{r}
rsquared(BKmod)
```
### Section 7.7 Regression assumptions and conditions